Ganoderma lucidum is actually a popular herbal medicine utilized in China to promote health. Modern reports have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit a number of effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The current study evaluated the antitumor outcomes of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore oil and spores oil, and investigated the potential underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and also the cell cycle. The final results indicated that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.
Ganoderma lucidum, also referred to as Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is among most often used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and scientific studies have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in its fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The current study examined the antitumor activity of a combination of aqueous and ethanol extracts from the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, that was taken from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases certainly are a class of enzymes working in the regulating DNA supercoiling.
Topoisomerase overexpression continues to be linked to a number of human malignancies and is the target for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). In case topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription from the DNA and through cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study revealed that the active components of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The present study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.
Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were supplied by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to get ready solutions of numerous concentrations, that had been brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil had been a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of ganoderma lucidum spore oil were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 µl/ml (v/v) Tween 80.
Recently, the effect of Ganoderma on tumors continues to be increasingly studied. The present study revealed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the expansion of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the expansion from the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects within the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.
Since olden days, Ganoderma has become commonly used being a popular herbal medicine for that promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to possess a certain impact on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of many aspects of Ganoderma extract is really a polysaccharide that has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). As there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) within the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident effect on immunity. The present study also established that the antitumor outcomes of Ganoderma might be safer in comparison with 5-FU, which resulted in the decreased body weight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).
To investigate the possible mechanism of ganoderma lucidum spore powder, the consequences of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases and the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.
DNA topoisomerases really are a class of enzymes active in the regulation of DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases change the amount of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. Those two activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, if the DNA helix should be unwound to allow proper function of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy takes advantage of this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. As an example, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, like doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.